Una investigación transversal del uso de verbos modales en la escritura en inglés de los estudiantes chinos de inglés como lengua extranjera




Palabras clave:

verbos modales, corpus, transversal, escritura académica, los Estándares de China de Capacidad del Idioma Inglés (CSE)


Este estudio, basado en un corpus de escritura de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera, ha investigado el uso de verbos modales en los niveles 1 a 7 de acuerdo con los Estándares de China de Capacidad del Idioma Inglés (CSE). Los resultados de los análisis cuantitativos y cualitativos indican que: 1) los estudiantes chinos de inglés como lengua extranjera en los niveles 1-7 de CSE usan más verbos modales por escrito que los estudiantes nativos en MICUSP; 2) constantemente abusan de CAN, WILL y SHOULD, pero infrautilizan WOULD en su escritura de niveles cruzados; 3) las formas sobresalientes y los sentidos fundamentales de los verbos modales son los más recurrentes en la escritura en los niveles 1 a 3 de CSE y el uso de los estudiantes se vuelve más productivos y variables en los niveles superiores; y 4) los pares forma-significado parecen existir: los verbos modales con la estructura de aspecto perfecto y sus asociados sentidos son raros en la escritura de los estudiantes chinos de inglés. La variación de registros cruzados y la complejidad de la estructura pueden explicar la ausencia de algunas formas verbales modales en la escritura de los alumnos.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Aijmer, K. (2002). Modality in advanced Swedish learners' written interlanguage. In S. Granger, J. Hung & S. Petch-Tyson (Eds.), Computer learner corpora, second language acquisition and foreign language teaching (pp. 55-76). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Axel-Tober, K. & Gergel, R. (2016). Modality and mood in formal syntactic approaches. In J. Nuyts & J. Auwera (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of modality and mood (pp. 495-513). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.

Bowie, J. S. W. & Aarts, B. (2013). Contemporary change in modal usage in spoken British English: Mapping the impact of genre. In J. M. Carretero, J. A. Hita & J. van der Auwera (Eds.), English modality: Core, periphery and evidentiality (pp. 57–94). Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter.

Boyd, J. K., & Goldberg, A. E. (2009). Input effects within a constructionist framework. The Modern Language Journal, 93(3), 418-429. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00899.x

Carrió-Pastor, M. L. (2014). Cross-cultural variation in the use of modal verbs in academic English. Sky Journal of Linguistics, 27(1), 153-166. http://www.linguistics.fi/julkaisut/SKY2014/Carrio-Pastor.pdf

Coates, J. (2014). The semantics of the modal auxiliaries. London: Routledge.

Collins, P. (2009). Modals and quasi-modals in English. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Crawford W. (2005). Is L2 writing like native-English conversation? Paper presented at ICAME 26, University of Michigan. https://scholar.google.co.kr/citations?view_op=view_citation&hl=ko&user=OSSsVMUAAAAJ&citation_for_view=OSSsVMUAAAAJ:9yKSN-GCB0IC

Dunlea, J., Spiby, R., Wu, S., Zhang, J. & Cheng, M. (2019). China’s standards of English language ability (CSE): Linking UK exams to the CSE. https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/linking_cse_to_uk_exams_5_0.pdf

Elturki, E. & Salsbury, T. (2016). A cross-sectional investigation of the development of modality in English language learners’ writing: A corpus-driven study. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 51-72. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/19z4h5h0

Fujimoto, K. (2019). Epistemic modal verbs and adverbs in Japanese university students’ academic writing. Paper presented at International Corpus Linguistic Conference (CL2019). https://researchmap.jp/read0127473/presentations

Gao, X. (2020). A comparable-corpus-based study of modal verbs in Chinese and western scholars’ English research articles. Journal of PLA University of Foreign Languages, 43, 1-9. https://d.buaa.edu.cn/https/77726476706e69737468656265737421fbf952d2243e635930068cb8/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?dbcode=CJFD&dbname=CJFDLAST2020&filename=JFJW202005001&uniplatform=NZKPT&v=KIpNw_Wv2cmxa0-0g8IQtsCWOic2na97OMFqQO-h_L7z7eCOwmOKaKJ3HUn6_yRF

Gilquin, G. & Paquot, M. (2007). Spoken features in learner academic writing: Identification, explanation and solution. Proceedings of the 4th corpus linguistics conference, University of Birmingham. https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/documents/college-artslaw/corpus/conference-archives/2007/204Paper.pdf

Gotti, M. (2003). Shall and will in contemporary English: a comparison with past uses. In M. G. K. Facchinetti & F. R. Palmer (Eds.), Modality in contemporary English (pp. 267-300). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hinkel, E. (2009). The effects of essay topics on modal verb uses in L1 and L2 academic writing. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(4), 667–683. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378216608002403

Huddleston, R. & Pullum, G. (2002). The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hyland, K. & Milton, J. (1997). Qualification and certainty in L1 and L2 students’ writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6(2), 183-205.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1060374397900333

Ishii, Y. (2018). Investigating the frequency and dispersion of English grammatical items in textbooks and learner corpora: For more informed ELT practice. https://researchmap.jp/read0139137/presentations/5920518.

Kim, C. & Suh, H. (2014). Epistemic rhetorical stance: Hedges and boosters in L1 and L2 students’ English writing. The Linguistic Association of Korea Journal, 22(2), 61-93. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301204381_Epistemic_Rhetorical_Stance_Hedges_and_Boosters_in_L1_and_L2_Students%27_English_Writing

Knight, D. (2015). E-language: Communication in the digital age. In P. Baker & T. McEnery (Eds.), Corpora and discourse studies: Integrating discourse and corpora (pp. 20–40). Palgrave Macmillan: London.

Leech, G. N. (2003). Modality on the move: the English modal auxiliaries 1961–1992. In M. G. K. Facchinetti & F. R. Palmer (Eds.), Modality in contemporary English (pp. 223-240). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Lyons, J. (1977). Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ma, G. & Lv, X. (2007). The analysis on modal verbs–based on Chinese learner English corpus ST6. CAFLE, 115(6), 17-21. https://xueshu.baidu.com/usercenter/paper/show?paperid=67594a0fb61212b568b2fc0845d1ed61&site=xueshu_se

McDorman, R. (2020). The expressive power of modal verbs and why ESL and EFL students avoid them. https://eflmagazine.com/the-expressive-power-of-modal-verbs-and-why-esl-a nd-efl-students-avoid-them/.

McEnery, T. & Kifle, N. (2002). Epistemic modality in argumentative essays of second-language writers. In J. Flowerdew (Ed.), Academic discourse (pp. 182–195). London: Longman, Pearson Education.

Milton, J. & Hyland, K. (1999). Assertions in students’ academic essays: A comparison of L1 and L2 writers. In R. Berry, B. Asker, K. Hyland, & M. Lam (Eds.), Language analysis, description and pedagogy (pp. 147-161). Hong Kong: HKUST.

Ministry of Education of China. (2018). China’s standards of English language ability. http://cse.neea.edu.cn/html1/folder/1505/249-1.htm

Mitkovska, L., Bužarovska, E. & Kusevska, M. (2012). Corpus evidence for the acquisition of modal verbs of obligation by Macedonian Learners of English. 7th ELTAM-IATEFL-TESOL conference: Continuing professional development-opportunities and challenges, 27-28 Oct 2012, Skopje, Macedonia. https://www.academia.edu/17762114/Corpus_evidence_for_the_acquisition_of_modal_verbs_of_obligation_by_Macedonian_Learners_of_English

O’Keeffe, A. & Mark, G. (2017). The English grammar profile of learner competence: Methodology and key findings. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 22(4), 457-489. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321442237_The_English_Grammar_Profile_of_learner_competence_Methodology_and_key_findings

Palmer, F. R. (2001). Mood and modality (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pemberton, C. (2020). In my opinion: Modality in Japanese EFL learners’ argumentative essays. Asian Pacific Journal of Corpus Research, 1(2), 57-72. http://www.icr.or.kr/journal/1022925APJCR20201257.pdf?ckattempt=1

Portner, P. (2009). Modality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Römer, U. & Swales, J. (2010). The Michigan corpus of upper-level student papers (MICUSP). Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9(3), 249. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248617132_The_Michigan_Corpus_of_Upper-level_Student_Papers_MICUSP

Scott, M. (2008). WordSmith tools 5.0. Liverpool: Lexical Analysis Software.

Stewart, M. (2005). Politeness in Britain: “It’s only a suggestion...” In L. Hickey & Stewart, M. (Eds.), Politeness in Europe (pp. 116-129). Clevedon, England, and Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.

Xiao, Y. (2017). Chinese ELF learners’ acquisition of modal verbs: A corpus-based study. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(6), 164-170. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320079929_Chinese_ELF_Learners%27_Acquisition_of_Modal_Verbs_A_Corpus-Based_Study




Cómo citar

Gao, X. (2023). Una investigación transversal del uso de verbos modales en la escritura en inglés de los estudiantes chinos de inglés como lengua extranjera. Porta Linguarum Revista Interuniversitaria De Didáctica De Las Lenguas Extranjeras, (40), 41–55. https://doi.org/10.30827/portalin.vi40.22259