Contenido principal del artículo

José Pedro Cerdeira
Politécnico de Coimbra - Escola Superior de Educação
Núm. 17 (2020), Artículos, Páginas 189-212
Recibido: Nov 14, 2019 Aceptado: Jan 25, 2020 Publicado: Jun 9, 2020
Derechos de autor Cómo citar


Na sua origem a teoria cognitivo-social foi uma resposta importante para ultrapassar as limitações das teorias comportamentalistas. Contudo, nos tempos mais recentes, o seu poder heurístico tem sido relativamente esquecido. Este artigo procura recuperar algumas das teses do modelo da aprendizagem por observação, para ilustrar o potencial dos mecanismos de auto-regulação para a compreensão do comportamento humano.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Detalles del artículo


Akamatsu, T., & Thelen, M. (1971). The acquisition and performance of a socially neutral response as a function of vicarious reward. Developmental Psychology, 5, 440-445.

Akamatsu, T., & Thelen, M. (1974). A review of the literature on observer characteristics and imitation. Developmental Psychology, 10, 33-46.

Andrieux, M., & Proteau, L. (2013). Observation learning of a motor task: Who and when? Experimental Brain Research, 229(1), 125-137.

Andrieux, M., & Proteau, L. (2016). Observational learning: Tell beginners what they are about to watch, and they will learn better. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(51), 1-9.

Bandura, A. (1962). Social learning through imitation. In M. Jones (Ed), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp.211-269). Lincoln: University Nebraska Press.

Bandura, A. (1965a). Vicarious processes: A case of no-trial learning. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1-55). New York: Academic Press.

Bandura, A. (1965b). Influence of models' reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 589-595.

Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Corporation.

Bandura, A. (1979). Self-referent mechanisms in social learning theory. American Psychologist, 34, 439-441.

Bandura, A. (1987). Pensamiento y acción. Fundamentos sociales. Barcelona: Martínez Roca.

Bandura, A. (1988). Self-regulation of motivation and action through goal systems. in V. Hamilton, G. Bower, & N. Frijda (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation (pp.37-61). London: Khwer Academic Publishers.

Bandura, A. (1989). Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy. Developmental Psychology, 25, 729-735.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communications, In D. Bryant (Ed.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 2-27). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bandura, A. (2016). The power of observational learning through social modeling. In R. Sternberg, S. Fiske, & D. Foss (Ed.), Scientists making a difference. One hundred eminent behavioral and brain scientists talk about their most important contributions (pp. 235-239). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (2019). Applying theory for human betterment. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14(1), 12-15.

Bandura, A. & Schunk, D. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy and intrinsic interests through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 586-598.

Bandura, A., & Cervone, D. (1983). Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms governing the motivational effects of goal systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1017-1028.

Bandura, A., & Jeffery, R. (1973). Role of symbolic coding and rehearsal processes in observational learning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 122-130.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York, Holt: Rinehart and Winston.

Bandura, A., Grusec, E., & Menlove, L. (1966). Observational learning as a function of simbolization and incentive set. Child Development, 37, 499-506.

Bandura, A., Jeffery, R., & Bachicha, D. (1974). Analysis of memory codes and cumulative rehearsal in observational learning. Journal of Research in Personality, 7, 295-305.

Bellebaum, C., & Colosio, M. (2014). From feedback- to response-based performance monitoring in active and observational learning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(9), 2111-2127.

Boutin, A., Fries, U., Panzer, S., Shea, C., & Blandin, Y. (2010). Role of action observation and action in sequence learning and coding. Acta Psychologica, 135(2), 240-251.

Buchanan, J., & Wright, D. (2011). Generalization of action knowledge following observational learning. Acta Psychologica, 136(1), 167-178.

Buritica, J., Heekeren, H., Li, S., & Eppinger, B. (2018). Developmental differences in the neural dynamics of observational learning. Neuropsychologia, 119, 12-23.

Chen, Y., Wang, Q., & Xie, J. (2011). Online social interactions: A natural experiment on word of mouth versus observational learning. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(2), 238-254.

Cordovani, L., & Cordovani, D. (2016). A literature review on observational learning for medical motor skills and anesthesia teaching. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 21(5), 1113-1121.

Covington, M., & Omelich, C. (1979). Are causal attributions causal? A path analysis of the cognitive model of achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1487-1504.

D'Innocenzo, G., Gonzalez, C., Williams, A., & Bishop, D. (2016). Looking to learn: The effects of visual guidance on observational learning of the golf swing. PLoS ONE, 11(5), 1-19.

Dowrick, P. (2012). Self-modeling: Expanding the theories of learning. Psychology in the Schools, 49(1), 30-41.

Ellenbuerger, T., Boutin, A., Blandin, Y., Shea, C., & Panzer, S. (2012). Scheduling observational and physical practice: Influence on the coding of simple motor sequences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(7), 1260-1273.

Fay, N., Walker, B., Swoboda, N., & Garrod, S. (2018). How to create shared symbols. Cognitive Science, 42, 241-269.

Feather, N. (Ed.) (1982). Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Flynn, E., & Whiten, A. (2013). Dissecting children's observational learning of complex actions through selective video displays. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(2), 247-263.

Gerst, M. (1971). Symbolic coding processes in observational learning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 19, 9-17.

Green, G., & Osborne, J. (1985). Does vicarious instigation provide support for observational learning theories? A critical review. Psychological Review, 97, 3-16.

Groenendijk, T., Janssen, T., Rijlaarsdam, G., & van den Bergh, H. (2013). The effect of observational learning on students' performance, processes, and motivation in two creative domains. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(1), 3-28.

Hanna R, Mullainathan S, & Schwartzstein, J. (2014). Learning through noticing: Theory and evidence from a field experiment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 129(3), 1311–1353.

Harris, D., Vine, S., Wilson, M., McGrath, J., LeBel, M., & Buckingham, G. (2018a). Action observation for sensorimotor learning in surgery. British Journal of Surgery, 105(13), 1713-1720.

Harris, D., Vine, S., Wilson, M., McGrath, J., LeBel, M., & Buckingham, G. (2018b). A randomised trial of observational learning from 2D and 3D models in robotically assisted surgery. Surgical Endoscopy, 32(11), 4527-4532.

Hodges, N., & Coppola, T. (2015). What we think we learn from watching others: the moderating role of ability on perceptions of learning from observation. Psychological Research, 79(4), 609-620.

Hoogerheide, V., van Wermeskerken, M., Loyens, S., & van Gog, T. (2016). Learning from video modeling examples: Content kept equal, adults are more effective models than peers. Learning and Instruction, 44, 22-30.

Hoover, J., & Giambatista, R. (2009). Why have we neglected vicarious experiential learning? Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, 36, 33-37.

Hoover, J., Giambatista, R., & Belkin, L. (2012). Eyes on, hands on: Vicarious observational learning as an enhancement of direct experience. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(4), 591-608.

Horsburgh, J., & Ippolito, K. (2018). A skill to be worked at: Using social learning theory to explore the process of learning from role models in clinical settings. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 156-164.

Kempster, S., & Parry, K. (2014). Exploring observational learning in leadership development for managers. Journal of Management Development, 33(3), 164-181.

Labuhn, A., Zimmerman, B., & Hasselhorn, M. (2010). Enhancing students’ self-regulation and mathematics performance: The influence of feedback and self-evaluative standards. Metacognition and Learning, 5(2), 173-194.

Law, B., Post, P., Jenny, O., & McCullagh, P. (2018). Video-based observation in sport: From “forgotten” to ubiquitous. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action. 9(4), 260-270.

LeBel, M., Haverstock, J., Cristancho, S., van Eimeren, L., & Buckingham, G. (2018). Observational learning during simulation-based training in arthroscopy: Is it useful to novices? Journal of Surgical Education, 75(1), 222-230.

Leyens, J.-P. (1968). L'Identification comme processus d' apprentissage. Année Psychologique, 68, 251-267.

Locke, E., Shaw, K., Saari, L., & Lathan, G. (1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1969-1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125-152.

Lowery, K., Geesa, R., & McConnell, K. (2019). Self-regulated learning of mentees and mentors in an education doctorate peer mentoring program. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 31(2), 186-204.

Maddux, J., Norton, L., & Stoltenberg, C. (1986). Self-efficacy expectancy, outcome expectancy and outcome Value: Relative effects on behavioral intentions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 783-789.

Mbati, L. (2013). Online social media applications for constructivism and observational learning International. Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(5), 167-185.

Mbati, L., & Minnaar, A. (2015). Guidelines towards the facilitation of interactive online learning programmes in higher education, International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 16(2), 272-287.

Miller, G., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

Miller, N., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social learning and imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Mowrer, O. (1960). Learning theory and symbolic processes. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.

Nadel, J. (2019). Imitation and plasticity. Enfance, 1, 133-144.

Neu, J., & Greer, R. (2019). Fifth graders learn math by observation faster when they observe peers receive corrections. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 20(1), 126-145.

Pervin, L., & Lewis, M. (1978). Overview of the internal-external issue. in L. Pervin, & M. Lewis (Eds), Perspectives in interactional psychology (pp. 1-22). New York: Plenum Press.

Posner, M. (1973). Cognition: An introduction. Glenview: Scott Foresman.

Raedts, M., van Steendam, E., de Grez, L., Hendrickx, J., & Masui, C. (2017). The effects of different types of video modelling on undergraduate students' motivation and learning in an academic writing course. Journal of Writing Research, 8(3), 399-435.

Rak, N., Bellebaum, C., & Thoma, P. (2013). Empathy and feedback processing in active and observational learning. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 13(4), 869-884.

Reynolds, G., Wasely, D., Dunne, G., & Askew, C. (2018). A comparison of positive vicarious learning and verbal information for reducing vicariously learned fear. Cognition and Emotion, 32(6), 1166-1177.

Riedl, C., & Seidel, V. (2018). Learning from mixed signals in online innovation communities. Organization Science, 29(6), 1010-1032.

Rosenthal, T., & Zimmerman, B. (1978). Social learning and cognition. New York: Academic Press.

Rosenthal, T., Alford, G., & Rasp, L. (1972). Concept attainment, generalization and retention through observation and verbal coding. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 13, 183-194.

Saiki, T., Imafuku, R., Pickering, J., Suzuki, Y., & Steinert, Y. (2019). On-site observational learning in faculty development: Impact of an international program on clinical teaching in medicine. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 39(2), 144-151.

Schunk, D. (1982). Verbal self-regulation as a facilitator of children's achievement and self-efficacy. Human Learning, 1, 265-277.

Schunk, D. (1986). Verbalization and children's self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 347-369.

Schunk, D. (1987). Peer models and children's behavioral change. Review of Educational Research, 57, 149-174.

Schunk, D. (1989). Social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. in

B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement. Theory, research, and practice (pp. 83-110). New York, Springer-Verlag.

Schunk, D. (1990). Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25, 71-86.

Schunk, D., & Greene, J. (2018). Historical, contemporary, and future perspectives on self-regulated learning and performance, In D. Schunk, & J. Greene (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp 1-15). New York: Routlege.

Schunk, D., & Hanson, A. (1985). Peer models: Influence on children's self-efficacy and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 313-322.

Schunk, D., & Rice, J. (1985). Verbalization of comprehension strategies: Effects on children's achievement outcomes. Human Learning, 4, 1-10.

Sexton, T., Tuckman, B., & Crehan, K. (1992). An investigation of the patterns of self-efficacy, outcome expectation, outcome value and performance across trials. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 329-348.

Spilka, M., Steele, C., & Penhune, V. (2010). Gesture imitation in musicians and non-musicians. Experimental Brain Research, 204(4), 549-558.

Tanaka, K., & Watanabe, K. (2018). Effects of model types in observational learning on implicit sequential learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71(7), 1596-1606.

Tuckman, B., & Sexton, T. (1991). The effect of teacher encouragement on student self-efficacy and motivation for self-regulated performance. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 137-146.

Van der Meij, H., van der Meij, J., Voerman, T., & Duipmans, E. (2018). Supporting motivation, task performance and retention in video tutorials for software training. Educational Technology Research and Development, 66(3), 597-614.

Van der Post, D., Franz, M., & Laland, K. (2017). The evolution of social learning mechanisms and cultural phenomena in group foragers. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17(1), 49-63.

Van Wermeskerken, M., Ravensbergen, S., & van Gog, T. (2018). Effects of instructor presence in video modeling examples on attention and learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 89, 430-438.

Warren, D., & Loes, C. (2019). Peer observation: An approach to negotiation training. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 19, 118-130.

Yılmaz, M., Yılmaz, U., & Demir-Yılmaz, E. (2019). The relation between social learning and visual culture. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(4), 421-427.

Zimmerman, B., & Rosenthal, T. (1974). Observational learning of rule-governed behavior by children. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 29-42.

Zimmerman, B., Schunk, D., & DiBenedetto, M. (2015). A personal agency view of self-regulated learning: The role of goal setting. In F. Guat, H. Marsh, D. McInerney, & R. Craven (Eds.), Self-concept, motivation, and identity: Underpinning success with research and practice (pp. 83-114). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.