Antioxidantes dietéticos para la prevención de la periodontitis crónica y su tratamiento. Una revisión de las evidencias actuales procedentes de estudios en animales y humanos

  • Alfonso Varela-López Universidad de Granada
  • Maurizio Battino Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona
  • Pedro Bullón Universidad de Sevilla
  • José L. Quiles Universidad de Granada
Palabras clave: Gingivitis, Enfermedad periodontal, Micronutrientes, Fitoquímicos, Suplementos dietéticos

Resumen

Objetivos. Dada la relación existente entre periodontitis crónica y altos niveles de estrés oxidativo, esta revisión pretende clarificar qué papel puede desempeñar la ingesta de los diferentes antioxidantes de la dieta en el mantenimiento de un periodonto saludable y en la reducción del riesgo de padecer periodontitis crónica, así como el posible uso de terapias dietéticas basadas en estos para el tratamiento de dicha enfermedad.

Métodos. Se utilizó la base de datos de la National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE: PubMed) y todos los estudios en animales y humanos tratando el tema de interés en escritos Inglés disponibles online desde la creación de la base de datos hasta Mayo de 2015 fueron recopilados.

Resultados. Los antioxidantes analizados a este respecto incluyen a la vitamina C, la vitamina A, algunos carotenoides y polifenoles, y el coenzima Q; así como los minerales, hierro, cobre y zinc que forman parte de enzimas antioxidantes. Aun así hay una escasez generalizada de estudios con pocos estudios en humanos, la mayoría de tipo observacional. Entre los diferentes antioxidantes, la vitamina E y los polifenoles parecen ser los que más evidencias a favor de su efecto beneficioso suman, pero en general los estudios son insuficientes para descartar o establecer qué antioxidantes son útiles y cuáles no.

Conclusiones. En general, los datos presentados indicarían que los antioxidantes de la dieta resultan beneficiosos para la salud periodontal, al menos bajo ciertas circunstancias. Sin embargo se necesitan más estudios para establecer la relación entre la periodontitis crónica y cada antioxidante concreto así como para diseñar intervenciones dietéticas útiles en la gestión de esta enfermedad.

Biografía del autor/a

Alfonso Varela-López, Universidad de Granada
Departamento de Fisiología e Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos «José Mataix Verdú»
Maurizio Battino, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona

Dip. Scienze Cliniche Specialistiche ed Odontostomatologiche

Pedro Bullón, Universidad de Sevilla

Departamento de Periodontología. Facultad de Odontología

José L. Quiles, Universidad de Granada
Departamento de Fisiología e Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos «José Mataix Verdú»

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1.
Varela-LópezA, Battino M, Bullón P, Quiles JL. Antioxidantes dietéticos para la prevención de la periodontitis crónica y su tratamiento. Una revisión de las evidencias actuales procedentes de estudios en animales y humanos. Ars Pharm [Internet]. 20 de septiembre de 2015 [citado 2 de diciembre de 2022];56(3):131-40. Disponible en: https://revistaseug.ugr.es/index.php/ars/article/view/3431

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