El resilvestramiento y el retorno de la fauna: enfoques, experiencias e implicaciones paisajística

José Luis Serrano-Montes, José Gómez-Zotano, José Antonio Olmedo-Cobo

Resumen


El resilvestramiento constituye una estrategia de restauración ecológica basada principalmente en la conservación y reintroducción de especies faunísticas clave. Habiendo adquirido una gran relevancia durante los últimos años, se han propuesto diferentes modalidades y se están desarrollando experiencias en diversos lugares del mundo. Mediante una revisión bibliográfica, en el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una identificación y análisis de los distintos enfoques, propuestas y experiencias, así como de las implicaciones paisajísticas de esta estrategia de restauración ecológica. Se han identificado seis enfoques de resilvestramiento y distintas experiencias asociadas a cada uno de ellos. Salvo en el caso del resilvestramiento pasivo o basado en la vegetación, el resto de propuestas se centran en el restablecimiento de distintas especies faunísticas ingenieras de ecosistemas: grandes carnívoros, especies pleistocenas, dispersores de semillas en ecosistemas insulares o megaherbívoros extintos en tiempos históricos. Se espera que el resilvestramiento, y la consecuente recuperación de la fauna, generen importantes transformaciones paisajísticas, tanto desde un punto de vista ecológico, como desde una perspectiva socioeconómica y perceptual. La dimensión alcanzada por este movimiento y sus conocidas y previsibles implicaciones territoriales, justifican la necesidad de una mayor atención por parte de la geografía.


Palabras clave


resilvestramiento; fauna; paisaje; enfoques y experiencias; geografía

Citas


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