«Paz ambiental transfronteriza» como interacción de normas regionales y poder local: Lecciones desde análisis y debates transregionales sobre seguridad hídrica

Harlan Koff

Resumen


Este artículo sostiene que las nociones de «paz» y «justicia» en la administración transfronteriza del agua varían entre diferentes regiones del mundo. A su vez, argumenta que ambos conceptos pueden ser explicados al analizar la interacción entre interpretaciones y la implementación de normas regionales de seguridad hídrica y las estructuras de poder transfronterizas locales. La «seguridad hídrica regional» es definida como el compromiso normativo para proveer el necesario recurso hídrico a las comunidades en las regiones del mundo. El «poder», que es definido tradicionalmente como «la habilidad de los actores para lograr sus objetivos pese a la oposición» se ve cómo una función del emprendimiento político y las estructuras de oportunidad.

Este artículo deriva desde una revisión a la literatura pertinente acerca de los dos elementos de la «paz hídrica»: «seguridad hídrica» y «justicia hídrica», así como la investigación sobre administración transfronteriza del agua en diferentes regiones del mundo. Discute la gobernanza del agua dentro del marco de referencia de las políticas transfronterizas y la integración regional comparativa. Incluye además un análisis de los documentos oficiales y sitios web de diecisiete organizaciones regionales junto con entrevistas a actores claves y expertos locales en administración del agua en casos de estudio específicos transfronterizos. El artículo está dividido en cinco secciones. Ulterior a esta introducción, la parte dos examina la «seguridad hídrica» y la «justicia hídrica» en el ámbito internacional. La parte tres discute el «poder» en el debate sobre administración transfronteriza del agua, y aborda el semblante transnacional de las discusiones sobre seguridad hídrica. La parte cuatro presenta un análisis comparativo de la «justicia hídrica» transfronteriza en diferentes regiones del mundo, el cual es seguido por conclusiones teóricas abordadas en la parte cinco. En general, el artículo enfatiza la necesidad de promover investigaciones comparativas transregionales sobre la gobernanza transfronteriza del agua, para analizar como «paz,» «seguridad» y «justicia» están enmarcados en los debates sobre recursos hídricos.


Palabras clave


seguridad hídrica; justicia hídrica; gobernanza transfronteriza del agua; integración regional; poder

Citas


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