Estudio botánico y farmacéutico de productos con aplicación en cosmética y cuidado de la piel

Francisco José González Minero, Luis Bravo Díaz

Resumen


Objetivos: revisar productos comerciales con ingredientes vegetales que se emplean en higiene personal y cosmética de uso diario. Reunir, en forma de catálogo, consideraciones botánicas y farmacéuticas de estos extractos.

Métodos: se ha realizado un trabajo de campo durante seis meses, visitando las áreas de higiene y cosmética de 4 farmacias y de 3 grandes superficies comerciales de Sevilla. Se anotaron todos los productos en cuya etiqueta aparecía un nombre de planta: Se ha usado la bibliografía necesaria obtenida a través de bases de datos: Web Of Science, Scopus.

Resultados y discusión: se encontraron extractos de 129 plantas diferentes, repartidas por todo el mundo vegetal (a excepción de briofitos). De ellas, 116 son plantas con semillas, distribuidas en 59 familias diferentes, siendo las más importantes: Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Rutaceae y Sapindaceae.

El 42% de las plantas son de porte herbáceo, el resto son leñosas y algunos talos. El origen de las mismas se puede relacionar con las áreas agrícolas tradicionalmente cultivadas por el hombre, de las que destacamos la franja mediterránea, Asia central, India, Sureste asiático, China y Japón. Los órganos más empleados en la elaboración de estos productos son: semillas, frutos, flores (seguidos por las hojas).

Los metabolitos secundarios más abundantes son: flavonoides (quercetina, kaempferol, hesperidina), vitaminas (C), hidratos de carbono (carragenanos y fuciodanos) y lípidos (ácidos grasos mono y polinsaturados). Los usos principales son: poder antioxidante, aromas y fragancias, nutrientes e hidratantes de la piel, efecto fotoprotector, cuidado del cabello y anticelulítico.

Conclusiones: La muestra de vegetales que se ha encontrado, puede ser representativa de las especies botánicas que aparecen en cosmética y productos para la piel, de uso diario en España. También se ha encontrado una base científica que sustenta las propiedades y beneficios de los extractos vegetales en estos productos.


Palabras clave


Etnobotánica; Cosmecéutica; Cuidado de la piel; Plantas medicinales; Productos antienvejecimiento

Citas


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Fecha de actualización: 11- 03-2018

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